History of bitumen :
Bitumen is a thick, sticky, black, non-crystalline substance. This definition of bitumen can be found in many Contents.The first civilization to become acquainted with bitumen was the ancient Sumerian civilization, These people used it to seal their towers in 4000 BC.
After them, the Egyptians and Babylonians also used bitumen. The ancient Egyptians used bitumen for various uses, including sealing and embalming corpses.
Definition of bitumen:
Bitumen is a black to dark brown hydrocarbon that is completely soluble in carbon sulfide and carbon tetrachloride. Pure bitumen is one of the products of crude oil refining. By heating crude oil, gasoline, petroleum solvents and other light oils are separated in the distillation towers of the refinery and the temperature of more than about 380 degrees of bitumen remains, which is solid or semi-solid and also while distillation is performed in a vacuum The heat is reduced. Bitumen is solid at ambient temperature But by increase temperature, it becomes paste and then liquefies.
Penetration bitumen : Penetration grade bitumen has been used since the early nineteenth century for determine the consistency and hardness of the bitumen. In penetration grade bitumens, used standard needle under the effect of 100 gram load and take the bitumen at a temperature of 25 degrees for 5 seconds. The amount of penetration in terms of tenths a millimeter is called the degree of penetration. The lower degree of Penetration Bitumen caused to creation hard Bitumen.
For example, 60-70 bitumen means that the penetration of the needle is between 60 and 70 tenths of millimeter.
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TYPES OF PENETRATION GARDES :
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